DETAIL : 
Martin Johnson HEADE  
United States of America 1819 � 1904-09-04  
Sunlight and shadow: the Newbury Marshes c.1871-75, oil on canvas National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. John Wilmerding Collection (Promised Gift). Image courtesy of the Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
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EXHIBITION GROUPING : GALLERY 1 | GALLERY 2 | GALLERY 3 | GALLERY 4 | GALLERY 5 | GALLERY 6 |

Gallery 3:

As British- and German-trained artists travelled to America and Australia, they re-invented European landscape traditions. In the New World the land itself becomes a heroic character in the pictorial narrative. Crystalline air, vast skies, expansive plains and valleys all emphasise the size of the continents. Von Guérard and Chevalier even participated in expeditions to survey geological features of the new land.

Paintings by American and Australian artists explore the ways in which immigrants depicted unfamiliar territories. From scenes close to home, painters then portrayed newly explored terrain before venturing further, into the wilderness. In ‘Cawood’, on the Ouse River Glover depicted the wide-open spaces of his new country. The Americans Cole, Church and Bierstadt, like Australian painters such as Glover and von Guérard, represent English and German Romantic traditions.

Artists luxuriated in the elemental and extremes of untameable nature – charred trees, icy fjords, clear rivers and volcanic springs – but they also depicted more prosaic marshlands and twilit evening skies. Church ventured to Colombia and Ecuador in 1853. His South American landscape brings together tropical jungle, snow-covered mountains, buildings, people and a waterfall.

Landscape painters mark the rise of national consciousness in Russia, Scandinavia and elsewhere. The Swiss artist Calame reveals also the contemporary importance of ‘landscape tourism’ in Europe: the naturalistic fidelity and beauty of his paintings appealed to a large audience.